Nature News: Lambsquarters A Prolific Weed You Can Eat

Published June 12, 2021 The Portsmouth Herald, the York Weekly, Foster’s Daily etc

We recently bought a beautiful load of composted pig and cow manure from a local farm.  I’m still working on building soil in my garden (our native soil is mostly sand–left over from the last glaciers that plowed through this area), so any organic content is great.  Travelling along with the manure was a healthy crop of lambsquarters.  This is a weed that grows almost everywhere–anywhere there are people and soil to grow in.  

Lambsquarters growing in profusion from the composted pig manure -sue pike photo

Lambsquarters are in the beet and spinach family!

Lambsquarters is a member of the goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae) which also includes beets and spinach.   Lambsquarters is not native to North America, but does have an interesting history here.  It is thought to have originated in Europe and Asia and then was spread to Africa, Australia and the Americas by human activity a really, really long time ago. Recent archeological studies have found seeds stored by Native Americans pre-dating the arrival of European colonists(who also most certainly brought lambsquarters with them to the Americas), suggesting that these plants were among the earliest invasive species (perhaps we could call them paleo-invaders along with the humans who brought them) in North America. 

Goose foot-shaped leaves are one distinguishing feature

This fast-growing summer annual typically grows to about three feet tall and, while its leaves can take on a variety of forms depending upon growing conditions, usually has ovate to triangular leaves with toothed or slightly lobed edges with a white coating on the undersides. The scientific name for lambsquarters is “Chenopodium album” which refers to the shape of the leaves. “Chenopodium” comes from the Greek for goose foot – it really does resemble a goose foot. The species name “album” is Latin for white; this refers to that white coating which distinguishes it from other members of this genus.  You can generally guess that a plant has a long history with humans based upon its common names.  

White gritty coating on the underside of this leaf vanishes when you cook it -sue pike photo

One common name for lambsquarters is goosefoot-due to the shape of the leaves.  According to “The Real Food Encyclopedia” (foodprint.org) ““Lamb’s quarters goes by lots of different names, including “white goosefoot,” “pigweed,” “dungweed,” “baconweed” and “wild spinach.” One of its names, “fat hen,” comes from its supposed ability (as a feed) to fatten chickens.” These names speak to its many uses by humans-as a feed for pigs, as a substitute for spinach (it cooks up just like spinach), how great it tastes with bacon.  I love the name “Dungweed”, it  resonates with me and my big pile of pig manure.  

Eat the Weeds!!

There are a couple reasons lambsquarters accompanied humans on our migrations around the world.  It is extremely nutritious-it has even more protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C, and vitamin A then spinach.  Like spinach it is high in oxalic acid–which interferes with absorption of calcium and iron (among other things), so should be eaten in moderation, or blanched.  Blanching leaches out a good amount of the oxalic acid. Before you panic and decide not to eat lambsquarters, be aware that  rhubarb, tea, beer, almonds, chocolate and bananas are also high in oxalic acid.  

The goose-foot shaped leaf is very distinctive -sue pike photo

Lambsquarters has also spread so far because it has all the traits to make it a highly effective weed.  One plant can produce 70,000 seeds.  These seeds are tough, they can survive most digestive tracts (hence all those cute little lambsquarter plants springing out of my manure pile).  While this is a wind-pollinated species, it most often self-pollinates, ensuring a next generation. It also is resistant to many herbicides–which I think is great since herbicides are poisons that we shouldn’t be using in the first place.   I guess the take-home message here is if you want to control it in your garden, eat it before it goes to seed.  Or, alternatively, you can try letting some go to seed and harvesting the seeds-lambsquarters are in the same family as quinoa and amaranth-wouldn’t it be great to produce our own version of superseeds at home in our backyards? We are in the middle of a heat wave, most likely caused by our huge carbon footprints.  This is one small way to reduce our carbon footprint and create a more sustainable future-eat the weeds! 

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